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This symbol is often used in the ‘dplyr’ package, and is useful when chaining functions together.
Many functions work by asking for your dataframe or vector as the first parameter ie: select(your_df, column1, column2)
with %>% you would pass the dataframe into the function like so: your_df %>% select(column1, column2)
what makes it especially useful, is if you want to perform multiple operations on a dataframe, performing some calculation on the results of another function, without creating intermediate dataframes:
your_df %>% select(column1, column2) %>% group_by(column1) %>% summarize(count = n(), column_sum = sum(column2))
I find it quite useful. Do some reading about the dplyr package, it makes my life great.
This weird looking sign is a forward-pipe operator.
You can use it to pass the left-hand side input through the right-hand side operator. In mathematical terms, it is the following operation:
x%>%fwhich translates to
Here is a simple example, where I create a vector of values, take the root square of every number and then compute the sum:
- c(1,2,3,4) %>% Map(sqrt, .) %>% Reduce(sum, .)
- # The output:  6.146264
It is very useful when you need to apply many different transformations to your data and don’t want to save the intermediate results or have many opening and closing function parentheses.
Consider writing the following:
- x %>% impute %>% shuffle %>% pivot
versus the alternative:
I hope you get the point by now.
Moreover, this technique is very handy when cleaning data.
You can use it in your R session by loading the margrittr package:
I hope this helps.
To read more about weird looking programming symbols, please consider following me: Yassine Alouini
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“%>%” is the pipe operator. It is used to connect objects/functions on the l.h.s to the objects/functions on the r.hs.
Here are some examples of pipe(%>%) operator:
- laptops %>% select(1,2)
Here, pipe operator is used to connect the “laptops” dataframe with the select function. So, we are basically selecting the first and the second column from the laptops dataframe using the pipe operator.
- laptops %>% filter(Company=="Dell")
Here, we are using the pipe operator to extract all the Dell laptops from the “laptops” dataframe.
- laptops %>% select("Company","Product","Price_euros") %>% filter(Company=="Dell")
This is a complicated example, where we are using pipe operator to connect the laptops dataframe with the select function and the filter function.
It is the so called “pipe” operator, replacing a traditional function chain with a more comprehensive expression.
It is a general approach in programming (and R is no exception) to create functions, especially if they perform repetitive operations. As each function is short and specialised, a programmer can quickly end up writing hundreds of them, with a subsequent piece of code like:
This is a bit difficult to read, with a complex function chain starting with the inner most one, while the pipe operator allows an expression such as:
- x %>% read_it %>% clean_it %>% transform_it %>% summarize_it %>% plot_it
The function chain is arguably now more clear, and probably more concise. In practise, this is a matter of taste, as it is very rare to have more than two or three functions in a chain. Usually, the code is split into separate steps, but this is highly programmer specific.
There are many tutorials for the pipe operator in R, just Google for it.
What’s a good investment for 2022?
This might sound unconventional, but hands down I’d go with blue-chip art. A Basquait painting soared 2,209,900% when it was bought for $5,000 and sold for $110,500,000. And if you think that is crazy, a Leonardo Da Vinci painting skyrocketed 5,328,894%. Although not guaranteed, if you can f
think of it as meaning “THEN”
It is the difference between selecting the container with its contents included versus only selecting the contents. In any complex data structure, the elements are data structures in their own rights. This comes up lots with named lists.
test <- list(a = 5, b = 6)
In the former you get a vector with names, in the latter you just get the contents.
Boundaries, it’s the first thing that comes to mind. Mirroring, too many things in common immediately. The whirlwind of how quick things progress in the beginning, these are all major red flags, I myself realise these are all characteristic traits of the narcissistic sociopath. The rules are completely different for you to them, they don’t give back what they get from you. The biggest red flags, are the bits that are missing, the consideration and thoughtfulness of a genuine person with compassion, are missing. The back-handed compliments… an insult followed by a compliment. The incapacity to self reflect and realise they are wrong. The small lies for no reason. The fake confidence. All early warning signs of a sociopath. Any form of control over another person in the form of manipulation makes me question if that person is perhaps a narcissist.
I know people who are considerate and emotionally connected to others wants and needs and this is how I define what is not a narcissist. The easiest way for me to spot these people right now, is seeing what they do not possess, it has become evident to me, the difference between a person who has remorse, responsibility, reflection, empathy and consideration to a person with none.
My daughter’s initials symptoms were back pain and the inability to get comfortable when going to bed. Every part of her skin that touched the mattress hurt. Her husband went out and bought a new mattress, but it didn’t help. All I remember is her telling me how she hurt everywhere. I believe she also had abdominal pain.
She was living in Zimbabwe at the time. One month after these symptoms began she returned to Israel. She was thin as a stick, pale, had back pain and the abdominal pain had increased. She had complained about being too tired in general, but as the mother of 3 children under the age of 5, I didn’t think too much of it. She began going to doctors and became frightened when her lab work came back with liver function off. Only when one doctor ordered a CT scan of her abdomen was the pancreatic cancer identified. It had already metastasized throughout her body.
No one expected pancreatic cancer in a young woman of 32. After the diagnosis she was tested for BRCA and came back positive for the gene. We knew that my husband was a carrier of BRCA and that each one of our 6 children have 50% chance of having the gene. We did not know of the connection between the gene and pancreatic cancer in young women. She lived less than 6 months following the onset of her back pain and only 6 weeks after the diagnosis.
That’s our story. I wish we would have known the BRCA connection as we might have caught it earlier.