I think you know the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT. It indirectly means that, if one of the variable (pressure, volume or temperature) varies, the other two varies proportionately. These three variables are inter-related.
Now see the unit, mg/Nm3. It says amount of a substance (in milligram) per cubic metre of air. What is N, then. We did not state, the pressure and temperature requirements in which that volume of air is measured. If we change temperature or pressure, then the volume would change, changing the final value. Hence the term N is used, which stands for ‘normal’. It usually means, a temperature of 25 degree centigrade, and 1 atm pressure, ie, 101325 pascal. It sometimes varies depending on the authority who set the criteria.
So if I say particulate matter in air, in the city of Delhi is 20mg/Nm3, it means 20mg of particulate matter is seen in one cubic meter of air, at 25 degree C and 1 atm pressure.
Mg/Nm3 means milligrams per cubic metre. It is used primarily when measuring gaseous pollutants. The unit will vary depending on things like temperature, and pressure. A control at normal conditions is essential for proper measurement.
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It is generally used to measure air pollution . It denotes milligram per cubic meter . Of course the volume will depend on temperature and pressure. This implies that the reading should be standardized.
Thx for the A2A… mg/Nm3 means “milligrams per cubic meter”, a unit of concentration. The N means “standard”, i.e. standard temperature and pressure (25 degrees C and 1 kPa), which makes a difference for gasses but not for liquids.
Question: How do you convert 3kg 562g 305mg to mg?
Solution: We know that
1kg = 1000g
1g = 1000mg
1kg = 1000×1000mg = 1000000mg
3kg = 3000000mg
562g = 562000mg
305mg = 305 mg
Total = 3562305mg = 3.562305×10^6mg
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Thank you for the A2A. That is an interesting question, what are the health risks for an Ironman Triathlon.
First, let’s put out there that an Ironman Triathlon involves a 2.4-mile swim, 112-mile bike, and 26.2-mile run. The average amateur needs 12–13 or more hours to complete the event. Ironman is an extreme, or ultra-endurance event. So, any health risks will be associated with putting the body under stress for a long period of time and the nature of the events. Let’s begin.
- There is a generalized risk of accident and injury. This risk is primarily associated with the bike portion. Any time you get on a bike, you risk an accident. In addition, the course (roads) are not always closed to traffic. For example, in 2016, a woman died at Ironman Boulder (Colorado) when she veered into the road and was struck by a car. However, bike accidents are pretty rare. Ironman races are usually not-draft legal; the athletes are required to keep at least 3 bike lengths distance between them, so you are not riding in a packed group as you see at the Tour de France.
- HEAT and SUN. Ironman events are typically held in summer, or on the edges of summer. So, all manner of acute heat-related illnesses are a risk: Heat rash, sunburn, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heatstroke. This is pro-triathlete Sarah True at the Ironman Frankfurt, she is only about 1km from the finish when heat and dehydration end her day (you don’t need the sound, I tried to find the shortest clip, stick with it).
- The one risk that gets all the press, sudden cardiac arrest. About 135 athletes have died (mostly men) out of nine million participants over the last 20 years or so from a heart attack. Just over 2/3 of those incidents occur during the swim and primarily affect men in their late 40’s and early 50’s. We don’t really understand why it happens; the participants usually have some pre-existing cardiac condition and the swim seems to exacerbate it.
- The LUNGS. A common issue for endurance sports is respiratory inflammation or sports induced asthma (of sorts). This doesn’t appear to be a long term health risk, per se, but it affects performance. Although the cardiovascular system can adapt to stress and exercise and become more efficient, your lungs don’t. Your respiratory capacity is fixed. The challenge with athletes is being able to access all of that capacity. If the airways become constricted, that limits the athlete’s ability to move air and will slow them down.
- [EDIT] To add to The LUNG, there is a risk of SIPE, Swimming Induced Pulmonary Edema. Pulmonary Edema is the build-up of fluid in the lungs making it difficult to breathe and creates a risk of death. SIPE is usually associated with people who have existing heart conditions and for some reason, swimming exacerbates the situation.
- The HEART. When training and participating in long endurance events, the heart does have issues. Although exercise, in general, is shown to be good for the heart, too much exercise can create arrhythmias, fibrosis and even atherosclerosis. This seems counter-intuitive, but the hypothesis is that prolonged, excessive, stress creates an oxidative environment that leads to plaque formation and calcification in the arteries. The semi-scary thing about it is that your standard blood work won’t reveal this is happening. These conditions increase a person’s risk of stroke and cardiac arrest.
- The LIVER. Overtraining, or just training a lot can lead to liver inflammation and damage. Muscle damage increases ALT (Alanine Transaminase), this is an enzyme in your liver that plays a role in converting stored glucose into a usable form. If ALT is elevated, that indicates liver inflammation or liver damage (sometimes called fatty liver). This is why you should not combine excessive alcohol (or really any alcohol) with endurance training and racing.
However, millions of people have participated in Ironman Triathlons and live relatively normal, healthy lives.
The ideal gas law demonstrates that: PV=nRT in which n=m/M
n= mole number
m= mass or mass flow (kg/h)
V= volume or volumetric flow (m3/hr)
M= molecular weight of the gas for example Molecular weight of nitrogen (N2) =28 kg/kgmole
In Normal conditions according to the latest SI definition P=100 kpa and T=0 C or 273.15 K
R = gas constant =8.314 pa.m3/mol.K
So, PV=(m/M)*R*T or m(kg/h) = (P*V*M)/(R*T)
at Normal conditions then we have:
m(kg/h) = M100V (Nm3/h) / (8.314*273.15) or
m(kg/h) = 0.044 MV (Nm3/h)
example: 20 Nm3/h of Nitrogen is equal to:
m = 0.04428 (molecular weight) 20 (Nm3/h)
m = 7 kg/h.
Hope it helps you.
All the best 🙂
first it is necessary to define Sm3 and Nm3 because different definitions exist in different jurisdictions.
Definitions that will be used are;
Sm3 = 15 C / 101.3 kPa
Nm3 = 0 C / 101.3 kPa
using the ideal gas law
PV = nRT
rearrange such that
V = nRT/P
we know all dependants are constant other than temperature so n,R and T can be canceled out such that
V1/V2 = T1/T2
so let V1 = Sm3 and V2 = Nm3
rearrange equation above;
V2 = V1 x T2 / T1
temperatures need to be in Kelvin
0 C = 273.15 K
15 C = 288.15 K
V2 = V1 x 288.15/273.15
V2 = V1 x 1.055
Nm3 = Sm3 x 1.055
Like in most math, the higher number is the bigger measurement. In this case, 5.57mg is bigger than 1mg.
If you find milligrams confusing than in your mind replace mg with ounces or cups. It is a unit of measurement like these ones. Because five cups of water is greater than one cup of water.
And, what may help for you to know, 1000mg is 1g. Therefor there are 1000mgs in one gram. Just like there are 1000 ml in one liter. And 1000 meters in one kilometer. And 1000 millimeters to make a meter.
So, when you see milli before a measurement it means it takes 1000 of them to make the next larger measurement.
MG is the usual abbreviation for milligrams
Nm3 is a common unit used in industry to refer to gas emissions or
exchange. It stands for Normal cubic meter. “Normal” is always dependant on the individual circumstances of each gas, pressure, and use.
To convert Nm3 to a cubic foot of gas (under standard conditions),
multiply by 38.04.
Therefore, 1,000 Nm3/day = 1 kNm3/day = 38,040 cf/day.
Hope It Helps.